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Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Afaan Oromo - Chapter 7: Past Tense Verbs

Ethiopian Argument | Wednesday, April 30, 2014
Narrative
An Oromo History (Seenaa Oromoo)
About this sound Play all
About this sound play Bara dheeraaf sabni Oromoo nagayaan aadaa, diinagdee fi polotikaa isaa oofuu ture. Yeroo kana keessatti diinagdeen biyya Oromoo akka gaariitti guddatte. Akkasumattiis aadaa fi sirni of bulchiinsaa bal'ate.
About this sound play Haa ta'u malee, toora jaarraa 15 irratti duulli Habashaa fi Mootummaa Islaamaa o'aa deeme. Kuni saba Oromoo yaada keessa seensise. Sabni Oromoo diina jajjabaa kana ofirraa dhorkuuf suuta-suutaan humna lolaa guddisuu jalqabe. Duulaaf sabni Oromoo hin jarjarre. Obsa wajjin duula Habashaa fi Mootummaa Islaamaa akeekatani eegan. Habashaa fi Mootummaan Islaamaa lafa Oromoo irratti wal lolan.
About this sound play Imaam Ahmed biyya Habashaa akka hamaatti cabse. Magaalota Habashaa tokko-tokkoon gube nama hedduus fixe. Akkuma ta'eti, duultuun Portugaal bara 1543 dhufani Habashaa gargaaran. Imaam Ahmed lola Portugaal wajjin godhame irratti kufe.
About this sound play Kana booda Amir Nur 1559, duultuu fi meeshaa duulaa fudhate Habashaa rukute. Amir Nur mootii Habashaa Galaawdiyos kan jedhamu ajjeese nama hedduus fixe. Amir Nuriif waan hafte biyya Habashaa of jala bulchuu. Kanaaf biyya isaatti deebi'e namaa fi meeshaa barbaachis qopheessuuf karaa galaana deemuu ture.

About this sound play Akka olitti jenne, sabni Oromoo duula Habashaa fi Mootummaa Islaamaa eegaa ture. Hoggaa Amir Nur Hasaloo ga'u duultuun Oromoo duultuu isaa rukutte. Hasalootti duultuun Mootummaa Islaamaa hedduu dhume. Amir Nur lubbu isaa baafate nama xiqqoo wajjin. Adaree-biyyoo gale. Hasaloo booda sabni Oromoo lafa isaa Habashaa, Mootummaa Islaamaa fi saba biraarraa suuta-suutaan haga jaarraa 18 harka isaa seensifate.


Verbs in the Affirmative
To express actions completed in the past, verbs are conjugated in the simple past tense. Verb groups described in Chapter 4 remain the same independent of verb tense. That is, if one knows the present-future conjugation pattern for a verb, one can accurately conjugate that verb in the simple past (or any other tense, for that matter). Compared to the present-future affirmative conjugation, only the final vowel changes to form the simple past. The table below shows how to change a verb conjugated in the present-future to the present negative and simple past affirmative.[1]
final vowel in
the present aff
ending in
    present neg    
ending in past
aff
a u e
i u e
u an an(i)
So that “you learn” is baratta, “you don't learn” is hin barattu, and “you learned” is baratte.
The exceptions to this rule are the “to be” verbs: dha and jiruu. These verbs are only used in the present-future tense, and in the past tense are replaced by the verb turuu, which in the present tense means “to stay/wait”. To say “it is present” is jira, but “it was present” is ture. This verb is regular, as shown in the conjugation table below.
“To be” in the Simple Past
ani nan ture     nuti ni turre
ati ni turte isin ni turtani
inni ni ture isaan     ni turani
isheen     ni turte
The preverbs nan (or -n suffix) and ni are used in the past tense just as they are in the present-future tense (see Chapter 4 for use of nan and ni).

Verbs in the Negative
Verbs in the simple past negative use the hin preverb (as in the present-future tense negative) and the simple past form from the 2nd person plural. The simple past negative is therefore the same for all persons. Context or a pronoun are required to clarify the person to whom the verb is referring. To say “I didn't know” is “ani hin beekne”, “you didn't know” is “ati hin beekne”, “they didn't know” is “isaan hin beekne”, etc.
Like dha, miti is only used in the present-future tense. In the past tense, it is replaced by hin turre, meaning “was/were not”.
Verbs from the main conjugation groups are shown below for present affirmative, present negative, past affirmative, and past negative.
Deemuu — 'to go' (regular verb)

Present Past

Affirmative     Negative     Affirmative     Negative
ani         nan deema hin deemu nan deeme hin deemne
nuti deemna hin deemnu deemne hin deemne
ati deemta hin deemtu deemte hin deemne
isin deemtu hin deemtan deemtani hin deemne
inni deema hin deemu deeme hin deemne
isheen deemti hin deemtu deemte hin deemne
isaan deemu hin deeman deemani hin deemne

Nyaachuu — 'to eat' (-chuu verb)

Present Past

Affirmative     Negative     Affirmative     Negative
ani         nan nyaadha hin nyaadhu nan nyaadhe hin nyaanne
nuti nyaanna hin nyaannu nyaanne hin nyaanne
ati nyaatta hin nyaattu nyaatte hin nyaanne
isin nyaattu hin nyaattan nyaattani hin nyaanne
inni nyaata hin nyaatu nyaate hin nyaanne
isheen nyaatti hin nyaattu nyaatte hin nyaanne
isaan nyaatu hin nyaatan nyaatani hin nyaanne

Haasa'uu — 'to talk' (-oof- verb)

Present Past

Affirmative     Negative     Affirmative     Negative
ani         nan haasa'a hin haasa'u nan haasa'e hin haasoofne
nuti haasoofna hin haasoofnu haasoofne hin haasoofne
ati haasoofta hin haasooftu haasoofte hin haasoofne
isin haasooftu hin haasooftan haasooftani hin haasoofne
inni haasa'a hin haasa'u haasa'e hin haasoofne
isheen haasoofti hin haasooftu haasoofte hin haasoofne
isaan haasa'u hin haasa'an haasa'ani hin haasoofne

Danda'uu — 'to be able' (-ees- verb)

Present Past

Affirmative     Negative     Affirmative     Negative
ani         nan danda'a hin danda'u nan danda'e hin dandeenye
nuti dandeenya hin dandeenyu dandeenye hin dandeenye
ati dandeesa hin dandeesu dandeese hin dandeenye
isin dandeesu hin dandeesan dandeesani hin dandeenye
inni danda'a hin danda'u danda'e hin dandeenye
isheen dandeesi hin dandeesu dandeese hin dandeenye
isaan danda'u hin danda'an danda'ani hin dandeenye


Vocabulary from the Narrative
aadaa culture, tradition
ajjeesuu to kill
akeekachuu to observe
akka like, as
akkasumatti in this way
akkuma just as, just like
akkuma ta'eti somehow
baafachuu to escape, flee
bal'achuu to widen
bara time period, era
bara dheeraaf “for a long time”
biyya country
cabsuu to break
deebi'uu to come back, return
dheera tong
dhorkuu to forbid, prevent
dhumuu to be finished, completed
diina enemy
diinagdee economy
duula battle, campaign
duultuu soldiers
eeguu to wait
fixuu to finish, exterminate
fudhachuu to take, receive
ga'uu to reach, be enough
gargaaruu to aid, assist
gubuu to burn
guddachuu to grow, develop
guddisuu to increase
haa ta'u malee but, however
Habashaa Habasha, Abyssinian (from Amhara)
hafuu to remain
hamaa mean, vicious, evil
hamaatti viciously
hoggaa, yoom when (relative pronoun)
humna power, force
humna lolaa army [lit. “fighting force”]
jaarraa century
jabaa strong
jala under
jalqabuu to begin
jarjaruu to be in a hurry
kana booda after this
karaa galaana by sea
kufuu to fall, die in battle
lafa land
lola fight
loluu to fight
lubbu life
magaalaa town, city
meeshaa goods, materials
meeshaa duulaa Weapons [lit. “fighting materials”]
mootii king
mootummaa kingdom
o'aa hot
obsa patience
obsa wajjin patiently [lit. “with patience”]
of bulchiinsaa self-governance
of jala bulchuu to control
polotikaa political system
qopheessuu to prepare, make ready
rukutuu to hit, strike
saba people, nation
seensisuu to cause to enter
seenuu to enter
sirni system
tokko-tokkoon one by one
wal loluu to fight each other
yaada thought, idea
yeroo time
yeroo kana keessatti “at this time”

Notes
  1. Some dialects prefer -tan and -an for 2nd and 3rd person plural past, while others tend to use -tani and -ani. Both are used in western Oromia and are considered correct in the Wellega dialect. Only the later method will be used for examples in this text for consistancy.
 Source: Wikibooks

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